Some reports showed a potential association between infection and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [11], intraocular B-cell lymphoma [12] and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders [23]

Some reports showed a potential association between infection and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [11], intraocular B-cell lymphoma [12] and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders [23]. hence, efforts should be performed to evaluate the effect of the contamination further in lymphoma patients. is an apicomplexan parasite that infects approximately one-third of the world populace [1]. Humans are infected with mainly by ingesting cysts from unsanitary food, ingesting food contaminated with cat-derived oocysts, as well as transmission from mother to the foetus [2]. Efficient immunity can limit the relapse of contamination in the multiplying tachyzoite stage, and hence, acute contamination is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals. However, for the immunocompromised host, the cysts can infect various organs, such as the liver, spleen and nervous system, which, in turn, cause severe symptoms as well as death [3, 4]. Currently, contamination in patients with malignancy is usually of great concerns, and thus, the correlations between contamination and MK-0679 (Verlukast) malignancy have been evaluated [5C7]. Malignant lymphoma (ML) is usually a common malignancy in children, with more than 13?000 new cases and 1800 disease-related deaths in China in 2015 [8]. The genetic, physical and chemical factors are responsible for the development of lymphoma [9, 10]. Also, a potential correlation between contamination and lymphoma has been reported [11C13]; however, a study conducted by Stamatovic contamination among children with ML in Eastern China, but Rabbit polyclonal to TLE4 little is known about the potential risk factors in this group. Thus, the present study was conducted to explore the seropositivity and risk factors associated with contamination in children with ML. Methods Subjects Children with ML were followed up and agreed to participate in this study from July 2012 to October 2018. A total of 314 children with primary ML, who presented to the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, were recruited. In addition, 314 healthy children, age-, gender- and residence-matched to the ML patients, were recruited as controls. None of the participants received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and/or immunotherapy before enrolment. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants/guardians. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University (No. 201311683). Sample and data collection Approximately 2?ml of venous blood was withdrawn from the participants. Blood samples were left at room heat for 2?h to allow clotting, followed by centrifugation at 3000?rpm for 10?min. The sera were collected in and stored at ?80?C until further analysis. Socio-demographic and clinical data A structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information about the socio-demographic data, including age; gender; residence area; any history of contact with cats, dogs and swine; consumption of natural/undercooked meat, natural vegetables, fruits and oysters; the source of drinking water; and the parents’ occupation [15]. Clinical data collected from the medical examination records encompass the infection status of the mother during pregnancy, history of blood transfusion, chemotherapy and the histological type of ML. Participants/guardians did not know the contamination status before the data were collected. Serological assay antibodies (including IgG and IgM) in sera were tested using the commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits (ELISA) (Demeditec Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Sera from the ML patients and healthy children were randomly mixed. Positive and MK-0679 (Verlukast) negative controls were included in every assay [15]. Statistical analysis The results were analysed using the statistical software SPSS 19.0. For the MK-0679 (Verlukast) single variable analysis, seroprevalence and various variables. The risk factors associated with contamination were defined by a multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to identify the effect size of MK-0679 (Verlukast) risk factors. A contamination The overall seroprevalence of antibodies in ML patients and healthy controls was 62/314 (19.8%) and 31/314 (9.9%) (IgG antibodies between children with ML and healthy children, i.e. 60 ML children (19.1%) 31 (9.9%) control subjects. Interestingly, we found 13 (4.1%) ML patients and six (1.91%) healthy children positive for IgM antibodies (was higher in 11C14-year-old patients (13/50, 26%) than in those ?2-year-old (7/47, 14.89%), although a not statistically significant difference was detected (infection in children with lymphoma and control subjects in eastern China infectioninfectioninfection in ML patients, whereas in healthy controls, contact with cat (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2C5.4; contamination in the present study. Table 2. Multivariable analysis of children with lymphoma and healthy controls MK-0679 (Verlukast) and the association with contamination.