[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] 32. a higher recall response than those of A2-infected mice. Using T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic CD8 T cells and immunization with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, we found that early bystander inflammation associated with A2 infection contributed to recruitment of the larger MPyV-specific CD8 T cell response. Beta interferon (IFN-) transcripts were induced early during A2 or A2(91G) infections. IFN- inhibited replication of A2 and A2(91G) but differentially affected the magnitude and functionality of virus-specific CD8 T cells recruited by A2 and A2(91G) viral infections. These data indicate that type I IFNs are involved in protection against MPyV infection and that their effect on the antiviral CD8 T cell response depends on capsid-mediated tropism properties of the MPyV strain. IMPORTANCE Isolates of the human polyomavirus JC virus from patients with the frequently fatal demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) carry single amino acid substitutions in the domain of the VP1 capsid protein that binds the sialic acid moiety of glycoprotein/glycolipid receptors on host cells. These VP1 mutations may alter neural Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) cell tropism or enable escape from neutralizing antibodies. Changes in host cell tropism can affect recruitment of virus-specific CD8 T cells. Using mouse polyomavirus, we demonstrate that a single amino acid difference in VP1 known to shift viral tropism Col3a1 profoundly affects the quantity and quality of the anti-polyomavirus CD8 T cell response and its differentiation into memory cells. These findings raise Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) the possibility that CD8 T cell responses to infections by human polyomaviruses may be influenced by VP1 mutations involving domains that engage host cell receptors. INTRODUCTION Binding specificity among polyomaviruses is determined by interaction of the VP1 major capsid protein with host cell gangliosides having particular terminal sialic acid linkages (1). The gangliosides GD1a and GT1b are required for transport of mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) to the endoplasmic reticulum (2, 3). Discrete amino acid differences in the receptor binding site of VP1 impart important biological differences, including profound differences in pathogenicity (4). Replacement of the glycine (G) at position 91 of VP1 of the laboratory-derived small-plaque (SP) MPyV strain RA with Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) glutamic acid (E), the amino acid at this position in the naturally occurring large-plaque (LP) strain PTA, was sufficient to convert it into a strain with an LP morphology and to alter the profile of induced tumors from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell lineage (5). Alternatively, substitution of G for E at position 91 in VP1 in PTA had the opposite effect on plaque size and tumorigenicity (6, 7). In SP strains, VP1 capsids with G-91 interact with branched (-2,6)-linked sialyloligosaccharides, which may act as pseudoreceptors by binding cell surface glycoproteins that divert virions into noninfectious pathways (8). An E at this position in VP1 leads to electrostatic repulsion of the (-2,6)-linked sialic acids, thereby Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) preventing binding of such branched structures by Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) LP strains; however, binding to gangliosides with sialic acid (-2,3)-linked to galactose is retained for virion uptake into an infectious pathway (9, 10). Interestingly, MPyVs isolated from feral mice have exclusively E-91 VP1s, an unexpected finding given that such LP viruses are potentially more oncogenic than G-91 SP viruses (11). The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is a frequent member of the human virome (12). Mutations of JCV capsid protein VP1 involving the sialic acid cell receptor binding domain are detected only in patients diagnosed with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a frequently fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system whose incidence is increasing in individuals receiving immunomodulatory therapeutics for autoimmune diseases (13, 14). These VP1 mutations have been proposed to render JCV neurotropic but also appear to enable escape from humoral immunity (13). Accumulating evidence supports the likelihood that CD8 T cells are essential for controlling JCV infection, preventing PML, and promoting recovery from PML (15, 16). Whether changes in tropism caused by VP1 mutations may also affect anti-JCV CD8 T cell responses is not known. The fate and function of pathogen-specific CD8 T cells are affected by the duration of antigen availability, antigen levels, and inflammatory factors (17,C21). Memory CD8 T cells generated in response to infections that are cleared after acute infection self-renew in an antigen-independent manner. We previously reported that CD8 T cells recruited early in a high-dose MPyV infection undergo exhaustion during the persistent phase of infection (22); however, the less.